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hese are important in the departure, approach, and landing phases of a flight and are integrated with global navigation systems such as inertial guidance and global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Automatic direction finder (ADF) is based on a nondirectional beacon (NDB) on the ground usually consisting of a simple dipole antenna. Most VHF omnidirectional ranges (VORs) have an additional facility to measure the distance of an aircraft from the beacon, known as the distance measuring equipment (DME). Since instrument landing system (ILS) localizers emit horizontally polarized radiation in the same band as VORs, it is possible to use the VOR antenna to receive the localizer signals on a light aircraft. The ILS is an example of a precision approach aid that provides guidance in both azimuth and height.

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