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Example of scanf and basic integer manipulation  with function call
/*Simple program showing how to read an integer and printing it to output in different formats.*/ #include "stdio.h" //write a function that gets an integer and a mask and returns the result of using the mask to reset some bits to zero int ResetBits(int a, int mask) { return (a & mask); } //converts decimal value to a string that represents the binary number //note that decimal is already represented in binary in the memory //all we need is an array of characters 0 and 1 that show the number in binary int DecimalToBinary(int decimal, char *binary) { unsigned int temp = decimal; int i; for (i=0; i<32; i++) { //ASCII code for '0' is 48 and for '1' is 49 //the bit we calculate in this loop is Least Significant Bit (LSB), so the index is 31i binary[31i] = 48+ temp % 2; //dividing by 2, simply shifts the number to right and allows us to process the next bit temp = temp / 2; } //an end is put at the end of binary string. Again this is not a number, but an array of '0's and '1's binary [32] = 0; } int main(void) { int a; printf("Please input an integer value: "); scanf("%d", &a); printf("\nDecimal: %d\n", a); printf("Hex: %x\n", a); char binary[33]; DecimalToBinary(a, binary); printf ("Binary: %s\n", binary); //reset LSB to 0 and leave the rest of the bits unchanged //print the result in hex and binary int temp; //0xfffe in this operation is called mask temp = ResetBits(a, 0xfffffffe); //&& works on true and false, will reduce them down to one bit  anything but zero is considered a one //& is bitwise, single bit by single bit printf("Hex: 0x%x\n", temp); DecimalToBinary(temp, binary); printf ("Binary: %s\n", binary); //reset the MSB to 1 and leave the rest of the bits unchanged //print the result in hex and binary temp = a  0x80000000; printf("Hex: 0x%x\n", temp); DecimalToBinary(temp, binary); printf ("Binary: %s\n", binary); return 0; }
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